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Darklang Release 2

June 6th, 2022

See the blog post for further discussion.

Darklang Release 2 is the culmination of 20 months work of rewriting the backend from OCaml to F#. This was done to give us more productivity by allowing us use more 3rd party SDKs, to solve operational issues, and to make it easier to contribute. Our reasons for making the change were discussed at the time: 1, 2, 3.

  • The editor backend was fully migrated by April 2nd.
  • HTTP backends (for were finished converting on May 3rd.
  • The migration to the new queues was fully converted on May 27th.
  • The execution engine in the editor was switched over on June 5th.

The change was documented in a series of blog posts: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.

Thanks to everyone who contributed, including Araceli Sánchez, Lev Lazinskiy, María José Dávila, Matthew Jeffryes, jwalter, Daniela Campagna, Sean Manton, and especially Stachu Korick.

Major changes

  • Darklang's implementation is now asynchronous, meaning that your programs will no longer be stuck behind other users' programs making HTTP or DB calls. This was a major source of slow Dark programs experienced by most users.

    As well as massively reducing latency for programs written in Dark, the editor now loads much faster.

    We have also switched from dozens of tiny machines to a smaller number of much more powerful machines. This makes your programs run faster on average, even when accounting for the switch to an asynchronous implementation.

  • You can now put a lambda in a variable and pipe into it.

  • Most error messages are improved, especially for bad input.

  • The queues have been rewritten and should not longer suffer from the old sources of occasional downtime and slow-down.

  • During a deploy of the Dark service, cron jobs no longer run the risk of running twice.

  • There is now a Status page.

  • Dark's internal firewalls have been significantly improved

  • Several bottlenecks to outbound HTTP requests have been identified and removed

  • String::length is now O(1) instead of O(N)

  • JSON output is now significantly faster

  • When reading strings from a user, the string is only passed over once.

  • Traces are now stored in the background, after a request has completed, greatly reducing response time on HTTP requests to Dark programs.

  • Dark has moved to more powerful cloud machines, going from Google' Cloud's deprecated N1 machines to extremely powerful T2D machines (2.3x faster)

  • The rewrite also addressed some underlying issues that will come out in new features soon, including a better type system, support for characters and tuples, fixes for poor behavior in Date and String functions, and more. These issues are tracked in our new project tracker.

Error messages

All error messages have been renovated, attempting to make them more consistent and to reuse error message machinery. As a result, a majority of Dark error messages have changed. If you were relying on the explicit format of a Dark language or StdLib error message, expect that it will be different.

If you do any error handling which relies specifically on the text of an error message coming from Dark, we recommend you no longer do that, and just use the presence of the error instead of the text.

There are two places in Dark which use string error messages:


The Error enum (referred to as Result.Error below for clarity), will contain a string error in most cases, which you might be using directly or indirectly.

You might be accessing Result.Errors and their text contents directly using the match statement.

You might also be accessing their text contents indirectly, using toString, or other stringifying functions, such as toString, JSON:: functions and HTTPClient:: functions. This is only true if you taken the function returning the Result.Error off the error rail. This text may also make it to your web/mobile clients or API consumers.

Result.Errors returned via a HTTP handler are not presented to the user, so text cannot leak that way.

Runtime errors

Runtime errors (including type errors) are not accessible via Dark programs, and will always terminate the Dark program when they are accessed. As a result, the text of any runtime error should not be accessible to your programs or your users.

Minor improvements and fixes

  • Dark used to return the Access-Control-Allow-Origin header in lower-case, it is now returned in mixed case.

  • When making a web request to your Dark application, if you did not specific a user-agent header, Dark used to add a user-agent header of ocaml-cohttp/1.2.0. We no longer add this header.

  • When making a web request to your Dark application with a content-type header of text/ping, Dark used to ignore the code and immediately return a response of status code 418. It now processes the request instead.

  • HttpClient::* functions called with usernames and passwords in the URL can now support arbitrary UTF-8 (in the past, Unicode was not supported.)

  • X509::pemCertificatePublicKeys used to only work for RSA keys. It now also supports DSA and ECDSA keys. The old version would read ECDSA keys and return an incorrect answer - it now returns a correct answer.

  • String::split would fail if the 2nd argument was "" and the first argument was a complex Unicode character, such as String::split "👨‍❤️‍💋‍👨👩‍👩‍👧‍👦🏳️‍⚧️‍️🇵🇷" "". This is now split correctly.

  • String.trim, String::trimEnd and String::trimStart worked incorrectly in some Unicode situations, they now work correctly.

Breaking changes

These breaking changes were documented and announced many months in advance of switching over to the new version of Darklang. We also very careful deployed the new code, watching for suspicious changes in any Dark programs that were running. In the rare case where something went awry, we contacted the users and worked with them to ensure a seamless transition.

String casing

  • String::toLowercase_v0 and String::toUppercase_v0 worked correctly in the old version of Dark, for all unicode. In the new version, the library we are using does not correctly handle some case changes, instead keeping the original character. This happens when the replacement is a different length than the character being replaced (for example, "և" should be "ԵՒ" when converted to upper case, which the old version did correctly and the new version does not). We plan to fix this at a later point.

String ordering

  • Functions whose output relies on the internal ordering of a Dict may have different outputs, specifically, the output Lists may be in a different order. Examples include Dict::keys, Dict::values, and Dict::toList which return Lists of values which are ordered based on the internal ordering in the original Dict.

  • When calling List::uniqueBy, and there is a duplicate, the new version of Dark may pick a different value for the duplicate. For example:

List.uniqueBy_v0 [1;2;3;4] (fun x -> Int.divide_v0 x 2) = [ 1, 3, 4 ] // old Dark
List.uniqueBy_v0 [1;2;3;4] (fun x -> Int.divide_v0 x 2) = [ 1, 2, 4 ] // new Dark

HTTP Clients

  • HttpClient::* functions no longer support making requests with arbitrary Content-Types. They must now be valid, for example "application/json" or "application/json; charset=utf-8".

Generating JSON

We have changed how JSON is generated in many cases. All the JSON generated by Dark is now standards compliant, and uses a different formatting style.

In the old version of Dark, we would generate invalid JSON for the Float values NaN, Infinity and -Infinity. The old version of Dark generates them as bare identifiers, while the new version puts them in a string (e.g. NaN vs "NaN").

This may occur in any of the places in which we generate JSON, which are:

  • when responding to a HTTP request in the HTTP framework
  • when making a request with HttpClient (any version)
  • when calling any of:
    • Dict::toJson_v0
    • Object::toJson_v1 (deprecated)
    • Object::toJson_v0 (deprecated)
    • Twilio::sendText_v1
    • Twilio::sendText_v0 (deprecated)

Note that the following JWT functions do not use this new behavior, and should have the exact same behavior as before, including:

  • JWT::signAndEncode_v0 (deprecated)
  • JWT::signAndEncode_v1
  • JWT::signAndEncodeWithHeaders_v0 (deprecated)
  • JWT::signAndEncodeWithHeaders_v1

Parsing JSON

When parsing JSON, we no longer accept the following invalid JSON:

  • bare field names, such as in { id : 5 }. You need to quote field names: { "id": 5 }
  • newlines and invalid bytes in JSON strings
  • the bare identifiers NaN, Infinity and -Infinity are no longer parsed into valid floats (note that the old version of Dark might have generated JSON with these values in it)

Dark now also allows parsing 64-bit integers (as opposed to 63-bit integers before).

Dark parses JSON:

  • when receiving a HTTP request in the HTTP framework

  • when receiving a response to a request made with HttpClient (any version)

  • when calling any of:

    • JSON::parse_v1
    • JSON::parse_v0 (deprecated)
    • JSON::read_v0 (deprecated)
    • JSON::read_v0 (deprecated)

Note that JWT::verifyAndExtract_v0 and JWT::verifyAndExtract_v1 are not affected by this change, as they have been kept deliberately compatible with the old versions.

HTTP stack

Dark has switched to using Kestrel, a high-performance HTTP server from .NET, for its HTTP server. There are some differences between the new Kestrel-based server and the previous OCaml cohttp-based server:

Large differences:

  • Dark programs can no longer set the HTTP Content-Length header and it will be set automatically. A Content-Length header will be ignored if provided via Http::response or similar functions.

  • Dark is now less lenient to receiving incorrect Content-Length headers. If the data sent does not match the expected Content-Length, the HTTP server will return a 400 Bad Request error. Omitting the Content-Length header is still OK.

  • JSON returned from HTTP requests is now formatted differently, as discussed above.

Minor differences:

  • When making HTTP requests to Dark:
    • Clients must send at least 256 bytes every 5 seconds or be timed-out
    • All headers must be sent in first 10 seconds
    • There must be fewer than 100 headers and they must fit in 32KB
    • The maximum size of HTTP requests to Dark is 10MB
  • HTTP responses sent by Dark
    • Headers will be returned in a different order
    • Headers are not always lowercase anymore
    • The Date header is now always present
    • The Server header is now darklang and always present

Testing changes

We have gone from about 250 backend tests to over 5,000. We now have custom test frameworks for:

Operational changes

Behind the scenes, Dark has greatly improved its operations.

  • Switched to massively more powerful servers (requests now get 2 CPUs of a Google Cloud T2D, vs 0.1 CPUs of a n1d -- T2Ds are about 2.3x more powerful than N1Ds)

  • Separated the servers used by the Darklang editor from the ones running production applications.

  • Massively increased use of observability and error tracking to catch errors and customer issues

  • Moved queues from running in the database (often taking over 50% of the CPU, to relying on our cloud vendor (Google PubSub). Also greatly increased reliability of the queues.

  • Nodes are now autoscaled, leading to significant cost savings.

  • Updated to latest version of Kubernetes, cert-manager (which powers our custom domains feature), nginx, and other tools that we use.

  • Added internal feature flagging to give us more control over how our infrastructure runs in production

  • Significantly increased use of Kubernetes' security features, in particular internal firewalls.

  • Standardized our production deployment process using a tool we wrote called shipit

  • Removed nginx from our backends

  • Move migrations out from startup code

  • All certs except and are now managed automatically

Documentation changes

Contributing changes